\u003c/p>\u003cp>變態反應性疾病是一種常見的系統性疾病,各個年齡段都有可能發生。隨著工業化對環境的污染,變態反應性疾病的發病率迅速增長,已成為世界衛生組織公布的全球第六大慢性疾病。那么,身體哪些組織器官容易出現變態反應?\u003c/p>\u003cp>皮膚。皮膚是人體面積最大的守衛器官,在起到保護、吸收、排泄、感覺、調節體溫等作用的同時,也是人體重要的免疫器官。皮膚的“變態反應”表現為蕁麻疹、特應性皮炎(遺傳過敏性濕疹)、藥物性皮炎(也稱藥疹)、日光性皮炎、接觸性皮炎、血管性水腫等。它們共同的特點就是難以忍耐的瘙癢性皮疹,嚴重者甚至可以引發過敏性休克,危及生命。此外,其他一些重癥皮膚病,諸如過敏性紫癜等皮膚血管炎(包括皮膚結核)、免疫性大皰病(包括類天皰瘡和天皰瘡)以及結締組織病(如紅斑狼瘡等)也屬于皮膚變態反應性疾病。\u003c/p>\u003cp>呼吸道。呼吸道分為上、下呼吸道,兩者之間相互交通、彼此影響,恰似“共飲一江水”。在呼吸道變態反應性疾病的代表中,如果說過敏性鼻炎位于長江頭,那么哮喘就在長江尾,前者表現為鼻塞、噴嚏、清水鼻涕,后者表現為咳嗽、氣喘等。同一呼吸道,“變態”同相隨。半個世紀前就有學者指出,過敏性鼻炎和哮喘有密切關聯,流行病學調查顯示過敏性鼻炎如不經過恰當治療,25%~38%的患者會出現哮喘癥狀,最終發展為肺氣腫甚至肺心病。此外,鼻竇炎、過敏性咽喉炎、真菌過敏相關性肺部疾患同樣屬于呼吸道變態反應性疾病。\u003c/p>\u003cp>眼睛。過敏性結膜炎是眼部最常見的變態反應性疾病。臨床多表現為眼部瘙癢,其他癥狀包括流淚、灼熱感、畏光及分泌物增加等。一些較嚴重的過敏性結膜炎有時可以出現視力下降,嚴重影響生活的質量。\u003c/p>\u003cp>胃腸道。過敏性胃腸炎,也稱消化系統變態反應或食物過敏,是由于某種食物或食品添加劑等引起的免疫反應,導致消化系統內或全身性的變態反應。兒童食物過敏反應的患病率約6%~8%,牛乳是最常見的過敏食物,約占其中的3%~7.5%。有食物過敏的患者常伴有支氣管哮喘,發病率約6.8%~17%;對牛奶過敏的兒童,哮喘的發病率高達26%。\u003c/p>\u003cp>幾種變態反應性疾病的病理生理過程具有很強的共性,可以認為,過敏性哮喘、變應性鼻炎、特應性皮炎、過敏性胃腸炎等是同一種疾病在不同靶器官的不同表現,也就是“一顆老鼠屎,壞了一鍋粥”。此外,同一種變態反應性疾病可以同時累及多個組織器官,例如過敏性紫癜患者往往同時或先后出現皮疹、關節腫痛、胃腸道出血等多個癥狀;藥疹患者可能同時伴有骨髓抑制、肝功能受損等多系統受累。由此可見,變態反應性疾病往往不局限于一種組織器官,需要進行系統評估和治療,也就是需要多個臨床學科同時來協調診治。\u003c/p>","type":"text"}],"currentPage":0,"pageSize":1},"editorName":"杜毅楠"},"__env__":"production"}; 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  1. 這四個部位最愛過敏 你可得注意了!

    這四個部位最愛過敏 你可得注意了!

    2021年04月09日 15:37:00
    來源:生命時報

    原標題:皮膚、呼吸道、眼睛、胃腸道,這四個部位最愛過敏

    主講人:復旦大學附屬華山醫院變態反應科主任醫師 駱肖群 主治醫師 朱沁媛

    過敏性鼻炎、哮喘、過敏性結膜炎、過敏性胃腸炎……生活中,有些人似乎和特定的食物、物品、植物甚至天氣“犯沖”,一旦接觸,就會激發各種過敏反應。醫學上,這種因為人體的免疫系統對無害的物質進行攻擊而引起的過敏情況,稱為“變態反應”。很多患者甚至同時合并兩種或以上的過敏性疾病,嚴重影響生活并造成極大的經濟負擔。

    這四個部位最愛過敏 你可得注意了!

    變態反應性疾病是一種常見的系統性疾病,各個年齡段都有可能發生。隨著工業化對環境的污染,變態反應性疾病的發病率迅速增長,已成為世界衛生組織公布的全球第六大慢性疾病。那么,身體哪些組織器官容易出現變態反應?

    皮膚。皮膚是人體面積最大的守衛器官,在起到保護、吸收、排泄、感覺、調節體溫等作用的同時,也是人體重要的免疫器官。皮膚的“變態反應”表現為蕁麻疹、特應性皮炎(遺傳過敏性濕疹)、藥物性皮炎(也稱藥疹)、日光性皮炎、接觸性皮炎、血管性水腫等。它們共同的特點就是難以忍耐的瘙癢性皮疹,嚴重者甚至可以引發過敏性休克,危及生命。此外,其他一些重癥皮膚病,諸如過敏性紫癜等皮膚血管炎(包括皮膚結核)、免疫性大皰病(包括類天皰瘡和天皰瘡)以及結締組織病(如紅斑狼瘡等)也屬于皮膚變態反應性疾病。

    呼吸道。呼吸道分為上、下呼吸道,兩者之間相互交通、彼此影響,恰似“共飲一江水”。在呼吸道變態反應性疾病的代表中,如果說過敏性鼻炎位于長江頭,那么哮喘就在長江尾,前者表現為鼻塞、噴嚏、清水鼻涕,后者表現為咳嗽、氣喘等。同一呼吸道,“變態”同相隨。半個世紀前就有學者指出,過敏性鼻炎和哮喘有密切關聯,流行病學調查顯示過敏性鼻炎如不經過恰當治療,25%~38%的患者會出現哮喘癥狀,最終發展為肺氣腫甚至肺心病。此外,鼻竇炎、過敏性咽喉炎、真菌過敏相關性肺部疾患同樣屬于呼吸道變態反應性疾病。

    眼睛。過敏性結膜炎是眼部最常見的變態反應性疾病。臨床多表現為眼部瘙癢,其他癥狀包括流淚、灼熱感、畏光及分泌物增加等。一些較嚴重的過敏性結膜炎有時可以出現視力下降,嚴重影響生活的質量。

    胃腸道。過敏性胃腸炎,也稱消化系統變態反應或食物過敏,是由于某種食物或食品添加劑等引起的免疫反應,導致消化系統內或全身性的變態反應。兒童食物過敏反應的患病率約6%~8%,牛乳是最常見的過敏食物,約占其中的3%~7.5%。有食物過敏的患者常伴有支氣管哮喘,發病率約6.8%~17%;對牛奶過敏的兒童,哮喘的發病率高達26%。

    幾種變態反應性疾病的病理生理過程具有很強的共性,可以認為,過敏性哮喘、變應性鼻炎、特應性皮炎、過敏性胃腸炎等是同一種疾病在不同靶器官的不同表現,也就是“一顆老鼠屎,壞了一鍋粥”。此外,同一種變態反應性疾病可以同時累及多個組織器官,例如過敏性紫癜患者往往同時或先后出現皮疹、關節腫痛、胃腸道出血等多個癥狀;藥疹患者可能同時伴有骨髓抑制、肝功能受損等多系統受累。由此可見,變態反應性疾病往往不局限于一種組織器官,需要進行系統評估和治療,也就是需要多個臨床學科同時來協調診治。

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